The fur and pelt trade, the rich fishing grounds off Newfoundland and the unequal development of their respective colonies sparked confrontations between France and England on North American soil. Allies of the English, the Iroquois remained enemies of the French. The peace established with Aboriginal nations in 1701 nevertheless ensured the neutrality of the Iroquois in the many armed conflicts of the 18th century. In 1663, a local militia was formed in Montréal to protect the colony, and the system was extended throughout the territory six years later. As for regular troops, King Louis XIV sent the Carignan-Salières Regiment in 1665 to help contain the Iroquois threat. From 1683 and 1688, a number of regiments from the troupes de la Marine were dispatched to Canada. The role of the Compagnies Franches de la Marine was to serve overseas, in contrast to the land army concentrated in Europe. Louis XIV thus established powerful garrisons, supported by the royal treasury and recruited among the local population. The Canadian soldiers and militiamen were known for their surprise-attack tactics, modelled on the extraordinarily effective "Indian fighting techniques." It was not until 1755 that land regiments were sent to defend the colony. During the Seven Years' War, the initially victorious French forces were unable to hold out against the power of the English army and eventually surrendered.

A View of the Taking of Quebec by the English Forces Commanded by Gen. Wolfe Sep 13th 1759, for the London Mag 1760, 1760
CA ANC C-41082
The Iroquois of Lake Champlain
Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy
The Carignan-Salières Regiment
The Troupes de la Marine
The Garrison at Plaisance
The Siege of Québec
The Order of Saint-Louis
The Sinking of the Pélican
The Abenaki and the English
The Journal of Louis Coulon
de Villiers
The Siege of Louisbourg
The Battle of the Plains
of Abraham
North America by Bellin