The war in North America ended with the capitulation of Montréal on September 8, 1760, whose terms granted Canadians property rights and the freedom to practice their religion, but obliged them to lay down their arms. While awaiting the end of the war in Europe and an international treaty that would decide the fate of New France, the English established a temporary military regime under General Jeffery Amherst, which lasted from 1760 to 1763. During these years, the civil code of the Coutume de Paris remained in force; the seigneurial system was preserved; captains of the militia continued to act as liaison between the authorities and the population; the Catholic Church maintained its role; the colony's internal administration still operated in French; and the economy, seriously wanting after several years of war, began to recover slowly. Canada's three administrative regions were retained, but each was given more autonomy: Ralph Burton was appointed Governor of Trois-Rivières; Thomas Gage, of Montréal; and James Murray, Governor of Québec.

The Military Regime
Portrait of James Murray, ca. 1770
CA ANC C-2834