Conflict over succession to the Spanish throne resulted in a coalition of several European countries, including England, which waged war against France from 1701 to 1714. In North America, British troops seized Port Royal, in Acadia, in 1710. By signing the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the French King, Louis XIV chose to preserve the integrity of his European kingdom, including the cities and provinces he had recently conquered. Of his possessions in New France, the King ceded to England the Hudson Bay basin, Acadia (inhabited by 2,000 settlers), Plaisance (Placentia) and his other Newfoundland possessions, with the exception of certain fishing rights; the territory of the Iroquois Confederacy became an English protectorate. France retained Louisiana and the St. Lawrence Valley up to an undetermined western boundary. France decided almost immediately to rebuild French Acadia on Cape Breton Island (renamed Īle Royale). In 1715, it began the construction of a fortified town at Louisbourg, bringing in settlers from Plaisance (Placentia) and encouraging Acadians living under British rule to move there or to Īle Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island).

The Treaty of Utrecht
Medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht, 1713
CA ANC C-14900 et C-14901