By 1627, the settlement founded at Québec in 1608 still had fewer than 100 inhabitants. That year, Armand-Jean Du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, founded the Compagnie des Cent-Associés, whose mission was to introduce 300 new settlers to New France every year. But war broke out between France and England, and the first contingent of settlers was intercepted by the English fleet on the St. Lawrence River and was prevented from landing. Despite the fact that peace was declared in Europe in April 1629, the Commander David Kirke demanded the surrender of Québec the following July. After lengthy negotiations, in which Samuel de Champlain took an active part as commander of New France, Québec was finally restored to France in 1632, under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

The Surrender of Québec
Articles requested by Samuel de Champlain and François Gravé Du Pont for the capitulation of Québec and articles granted by Lewis and Thomas Kirke, with the ratification of David Kirke, July 19 and August 19, 1629 (facsimile)