On the eve of the Seven Years' War, France's claims in North America extended across the heart of the continent, from Labrador to the Gulf of Mexico. It encompassed the cod fishing grounds of Newfoundland and the islands in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, together with a vast area southwest of the Great Lakes. The English colonies were confined to the Atlantic border, east of the Appalachians, the southwest part of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Hudson Bay. These regions, which had access to the sea, served as a base for the English conquest of Canada.

North America by Bellin
Map of North America by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, 1755
CA ANC NMC- 21057