The War of the League of Augsburg, which broke out between France and England in 1689, heightened tensions in New France. The two nations had already been at war for some years through the intermediaries of their Aboriginal allies, fighting for control of the country's fur trade and fishing grounds. In the fall of 1690, the English plan of attack had two targets: Montréal, by land, with troops commanded by Fitz John Winthrop; and Québec, by river. Unaware that Winthrop had turned back before reaching Montréal, Major General William Phips arrived by river opposite Québec with 32 ships. Facing off against him was the Governor General of New France, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, soon to be joined by the Governor of Montréal, Louis-Hector de Callières. Cannon fire was exchanged, and Phips' attack was eventually repelled.

The Siege of Québec
Plan de Québec assiégé par les Anglois le 16 octobre jusqu'au 22 dudit mois qui furent obligés de se retirer chez eux apprès avoir été bien battu par M. Le comte de Frontenac, gouverneur général du pays..., par le sieur de Villeneuve, Ingénieur du Roy [Plan of Québec besieged from October 16 until the 22nd of said month by the English, who were obliged to retreat to their own territory after having been defeated by Monsieur Le Comte de Frontenac, Governor General of the country …, by Sieur de Villeneuve, Engineer to the King], 1690