Wheat was the main crop in New France, and bread formed the basis of the population's diet. From the 1670s on, the colony was producing enough wheat to meet its own needs, and by the second decade of the 18th century, it started exporting wheat. This vital product was kept under constant surveillance by the authorities. In years when the harvest was poor, the price of wheat was regulated and its exportation restricted or prohibited; sometimes it was even necessary to import wheat from France. During the 18th century, if there was a shortage, wheat was requisitioned from the outlying areas, in order to ensure the survival of the urban population and the troops.

The Price of Wheat and Flour
Ordinance from Charles de Beauharnois de La Boische, Governor of New France, and Gilles Hocquart, Intendant, regulating the price of wheat and flour, March 6, 1738