The money that circulated in New France consisted of various types of coin minted in France or elsewhere in Europe, such as the louis, the Spanish piastre and the Portuguese guinea. However, the official monetary unit was the livre, which was divided into sols and deniers; it was money of account, meaning that it was used strictly for reckoning. Canada's money was worth 75 percent that of France until 1717, when the two became of equal value. In order to make up for frequent shortages of legal tender, the colonial administration issued monnaie de carte [card money], which it used to pay small sums owed to its suppliers, the colony's soldiers and other State creditors. These cards were reimbursed in coin by the Intendant, although cardholders did not always receive their nominal value. Other substitutes for cash included bills of exchange, which bearers could endorse and use as a method of payment.

The Monetary System
Design for 12 playing cards, 1714
FR CAOM COL A 21 fol. 125bis