Of the many companies that held fur monopolies, only two were controlled by Canadians: the Communauté des Habitants, which existed for about 15 years in the mid-17th century, and the Compagnie de la Colonie. In 1699, faced with a prolonged slump in the beaver trade caused by over-production, the colony's merchants had two options: to lower the price of the pelts they sold to the farmer-generals (financiers who collected in a certain district) of the Domaine d'Occident, at that time holders of the monopoly for the buying of furs and their sale in Europe; or to take over the monopoly themselves. They chose the second solution, set up the Compagnie de la Colonie, and sent two delegates to France to negotiate transfer of the monopoly. An agreement between the two parties was signed on June 9, 1700, and ratified by representatives of Canada's elite on behalf of the whole colony, in October, at the Château Saint-Louis in Québec. Weighed down by debt, and unable to deal with the decline in the fur trade, the Compagnie de la Colonie was liquidated in 1706 and the monopoly was handed over to French merchants.

The Compagnie de la Colonie
Agreement between the Compagnie de la Colonie du Canada and Louis Guigues, farmer-general of the Domaine d'Occident, and ratification of this agreement by the people of the colony, June 9 and October 10, 1700
CA ANC MG18-C3