The population of Canada contested the administration of the Communauté des Habitants, a company controlled by Canadian interests, which in 1645 had inherited the fur trade monopoly of the Compagnie des Cent-Associés. The main points of dispute concerned the company's financial management and its operation of the fur trade. In 1647, to correct the situation, the Crown ordered the establishment of the Council of Québec, whose mandate was to examine the accounts of the Communauté and to adopt fur trade regulations, and any other regulations necessary for the good of the country. In a major innovation, representatives elected by the colony's inhabitants attended council meetings (in an advisory role only) whenever it discussed matters relating to the Communauté des Habitants.

The Regulation of 1647
Regulation to remedy certain abuses committed in Canada and establishing a Council composed of the Governor General, the Governor of Montréal and the Superior of the Jesuits, March 27, 1647
CA ANC MG18-H65