English, Dutch and French explorers found themselves shoulder to shoulder in North America. With the founding of Jamestown in 1607, Virginia became a prosperous tobacco-producing colony. In 1620, religious dissenters sailed from England on the Mayflower, landed at Cape Cod and founded Plymouth. Other settlements, such as Salem, sprang up in the neighbouring area. This was the beginning of New England. The Dutch founded Fort Orange in 1613 (later named Albany), and colonized the Hudson River Valley, which was a site for trade with the Iroquois. On May 4, 1624, the Walloon Peter Minuit disembarked from a Dutch boat on the island of Manhattan with a few families. He bought the island from its Aboriginal inhabitants in 1626, and named it New Amsterdam. The settlement was seized by the English in 1664, and renamed New York.

The Colonies of North America
Description de la Nouvelle-Hollande et Angleterre et de la France septentrionale présentement habitée par les Franšais cy devant nommée Le Canada [Description of New Netherlands and England and northern France presently inhabited by the French also known as Canada], ca. 1660
FR CAOM COL C 11E 13 fol. 117-125vo